Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide after cataracts. This disease is typically asymptomatic until advanced visual field loss occurs, and this is the reason that Optometrists will frequently check the pressure in the eye and refer you to an Ophthalmologist for further investigations and management.
The risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma have include elevated intraocular pressure, advancing age, family history, African ancestry, myopia, and perhaps presence of certain systemic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension.
The precise mechanism of increased resistance to aqueous outflow remains unclear and is currently an active focus of research. At present, all our treatment strategies are directed at lowering intraocular pressure.
Initial treatment is usually started with topical or oral medications. However, with progressive damage, laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) may be considered as an adjunctive therapy, followed by incisional glaucoma surgery, either with trabeculectomy or glaucoma drainage implant.